This article examines agenda-setting theory. I compare the results of Levada Center surveys on the most memorable issues of the month with the number of publications on those issues in the Russian press from 2014 to 2016. In total, 884 issues are analyzed in the article. The results of the study confirm the impact of discussions in the media on people’s attention to an issue. The results also show that the discussions in the media one week before the date of polling are more important than the issues covered over the entire month. People better remember those issues that took place shortly before the polling, as well as those issues with intensifying discussions during the period. It is also important to note the role of regional publications in the sensitization of the public to various issues. Issues covered by national newspapers and news agencies but ignored by the regional press are significantly less remembered by the population.
Topic modeling is a popular technique for clustering large collections of text documents. A variety of different types of regularization is implemented in topic modeling. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for analyzing the influence of different regularization types on results of topic modeling. Based on Renyi entropy, this approach is inspired by the concepts from statistical physics, where an inferred topical structure of a collection can be considered an information statistical system residing in a non-equilibrium state. By testing our approach on four models—Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA), Additive Regularization of Topic Models (BigARTM), Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) with Gibbs sampling, LDA with variational inference (VLDA)—we, first of all, show that the minimum of Renyi entropy coincides with the “true” number of topics, as determined in two labelled collections. Simultaneously, we find that Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (HDP) model as a well-known approach for topic number optimization fails to detect such optimum. Next, we demonstrate that large values of the regularization coefficient in BigARTM significantly shift the minimum of entropy from the topic number optimum, which effect is not observed for hyper-parameters in LDA with Gibbs sampling. We conclude that regularization may introduce unpredictable distortions into topic models that need further research.
Clustering large and heterogeneous data of user-profiles from social media is problematic as the problem of finding the optimal number of clusters becomes more critical than for clustering smaller and homo- geneous data. We propose a new approach based on the deformed R ́enyi entropy for determining the optimal number of clusters in hierarchical clustering of user-profile data. Our results show that this approach allows us to estimate R ́enyi entropy for each level of a hierarchical model and find the entropy minimum (information maximum). Our approach also shows that solutions with the lowest and the highest number of clusters correspond to the entropy maxima (minima of information).
The study compares the networked issue agendas of Vladimir Putin and Alexey Navalny in Russian mainstream media and on the Internet utilizing the theoretical framework of issue ownership theory. We analyze the period from December 12, 2016 to December 12, 2017. The analysis shows that the issue agendas of Putin and Navalny are similar in the mainstream media and on the Internet. In both media types, Putin is often mentioned in connection with economic issues and international relations, which attract the attention of the population and are perceived as important. Navalny is associated with the issues of civic activism, NGOs and anti-corruption.
In practice, to build a machine learning model of big data, one needs to tune model parameters. The process of parameter tuning involves extremely time-consuming and computationally expensive grid search. However, the theory of statistical physics provides techniques allowing us to optimize this process. The paper shows that a function of the output of topic modeling demonstrates self-similar behavior under variation of the number of clusters. Such behavior allows using a renormalization technique. A combination of renormalization procedure with the Renyi entropy approach allows for quick searching of the optimal number of topics. In this paper, the renormalization procedure is developed for the probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA), and the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model with variational Expectation–Maximization algorithm (VLDA) and the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model with granulated Gibbs sampling procedure (GLDA). The experiments were conducted on two test datasets with a known number of topics in two different languages and on one unlabeled test dataset with an unknown number of topics. The paper shows that the renormalization procedure allows for finding an approximation of the optimal number of topics at least 30 times faster than the grid search without significant loss of quality.
Topic modeling is a widely used approach for clustering text documents, however, it possesses a set of parameters that must be determined by a user, for example, the number of topics. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for fast approximation of the optimal topic number that corresponds well to human judgment. Our method combines renormalization theory and Renyi entropy approach. The main advantage of this method is computational speed which is crucial when dealing with big data. We apply our method to Latent Dirichlet Allocation model with Gibbs sampling procedure and test our approach on two datasets in different languages. Numerical results and comparison of computational speed demonstrate significant gain in time with respect to standard grid search methods.
Insulin internalization and processing of the Insulin Receptor Complex (IRC) inside the cell are important components of the intracellular Mechanism of Insulin Action (MIA). They define the continuation of intracellular signaling of IRC and allow utilization of the parts of the complex after ligand dissociation. Traditionally, changes in the insulin regulatory system associated with the vertebrate phylogenesis have been evaluated by changes of its two elements: the hormone and its receptor. A hormone-competent cell was considered as an evolutionarily completed element of insulin regulatory system. However, previous studies of the isolated hepatocytes of four classes of vertebrates (lamprey, frog, chicken, and rat) revealed significant differences in the state of internalization of 125I-insulin and intracellular IRC processing. Radical differences were noted in the regulation of 125I-insulin internalization and the intracellular fate of the IRC. Here, cytosolic efficient insulin degradation and a complete lack of 125I-insulin exocytosis were observed in the cyclostome cells, whereas in amphibians the hormone underwent lysosomal degradation and showed low levels of exocytosis, while birds and mammals were characterized by high volumes of the excreted 125Iinsulin containing proteolytic 125I-insulin fragments. Despite the established recognition of the importance of the temperature factor, a complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the temperature effects on MIA is still missing. This poorly studied problem of the MIA temperature dependence can be behind the differences in the effect of temperature on the intracellular action of insulin and IGF-I. In fact, at different phylogenetic stages, successive changes were reported for the temperature dependence of the 125Iinsulin internalization and exocytosis. The following regularities were reported for the effect of temperature on the 125I-insulin internalization in isolated hepatocytes of different origin: complete lack of receptibility of the process to temperature in lampreys, receptibility of the process in a narrow range of low temperatures (0-5°C) in amphibians, and flexible regulation of 125I-insulin internalization in a wide temperature range (6- 37°C) in the cells from endothermic organisms. Reported data make it possible to observe three stages in the alteration of temperature regulation of 125I-insulin internalization (in cells of cyclostomes, amphibians, and endothermic organisms) and two stages of temperature regulation of 125I-insulin exocytosis in cells of amphibians, birds, and mammals. The data presented in this study reflect the specificity of the developmental reorganization of the intracellular MIA regulation and hormone utilization, and emphasize the central role of temperature in selective MIA formation during vertebrate phylogenesis.
The article investigates the coverage of the coronavirus pandemic on Channel One for the period from February 1, 2020 to July 30, 2020. Based on the analysis of more than 3,000 news stories, the authors divide the discussion into three major stages. Each stage was defined in terms of specific metaphors, meanings and methods of argumentation aimed at implementing a certain strategy (to soften, to problematize or to deproblematize the situation). The dynamics in the COVID-19 coverage is explained through the concept of cyclic (de)problematization which helps to interpret and analyze significant changes in the tone of the coverage of a particular topic by the same media outlet over a short period of time. By comparing the discussion dynamics and public opinion surveys conducted by the Public Opinion Foundation (FOM), the authors conclude that the way the COVID-19 topic was covered on Channel One may have substantially affected the public perceptions of the situation. However, cyclic deproblematization can increase public distrust in official information about the COVID-19; this, in turn, can make it difficult to reproblematize the situation if the epidemiological situation further deteriorates.
The article presents a comparative analysis of the pension reform coverage by three Russian TV channels – Channel One, TV Rain, and RT. The discussion of reform was analyzed from June 16, 2018, when the corresponding bill was introduced to the State Duma, to October 3, when it was signed by the President and was published. The media coverage of this news on selected TV channels differs significantly. Channel One was focusing the audience’s attention on the benefits of pension reform as before the TV address of the President the main source of formal approval of the reform was from federal officials and citizens. After August 29, regional representatives were included in the media discussion, which can partly be explained by the upcoming elections. Opposed to Channel One, there was no active participation of regional representatives in reporting on pension reform on TV Rain, yet the expert community was included, which still did not guarantee the representation of alternative positions as the channel adhered to a skeptical attitude towards the reform. The RT, which target audience is foreigners, showed the low intensity of pension issue discussion. Nevertheless, this channel was actively covering nationwide actions against the raising of the retirement age, which is unusual for the federal channel mainly focusing on positive aspects of the reform. During the elections, the RT included the pension issue to agenda: low voter turnout and the defeat of the ruling party in several Russian constituent entities were regarded as a result of increasing the retirement age.
This article analyzes the influence of economic and political institutions on the attention of the leading print media of the G20 countries to political leaders. Based on the Factiva database which indexes publications from 35 000 mass media of 159 countries of the world, we collected the database on the number of mentions of country leaders in the five leading publications of all the countries of the G20 for 2018. In addition, we use the Institutional Quality Index data to assess the quality of institutions in the countries we study. In this study we use the theory of global news flow and the concept of political personalization. We show that attention to the leaders of countries with good economic institutions is higher than to the leaders of countries with poor economic institutions. However, the relationship with political institutions is the opposite: more attention is given to the leaders of countries with law-quality political institutions. In addition, the results show that the media of countries with more developed economic institutions are less likely to mention leaders of countries with less developed economic institutions. But for the differences in political institutions the situation is the opposite: the media of countries with more developed political institutions more often mention leaders of countries with poor political institutions. We can conclude that the leaders of authoritarian countries seek to participate in the formation of the agenda and achieve a higher level of self-attention despite economic factors. This study complements the theory of global news flow by indicating that political factors are no less important in shaping the international media agenda than the economical factors.
This article analyzes the influence of populism on the attention of the leading print media of the G20 countries to political leaders. Using the Factiva database, we collected information on the number of mentions of G20 countries and their leaders in the five leading print media of the each G20 countries in 2018, and also supplemented it with information from the Populists in Power Around the World database. In addition, we compared the mentions of leaders with mentions of their countries. We show that populist leaders are attracting more attention from the international press. Also, in the focus are leaders of countries with a personalized form of government, which associates with a high concentration of attention on the head of state. Populism combined with a personalized form of government reinforces this effect. This conclusion corresponds to previous researches of growth of political personalization: the international media pays high attention not so much to economic events as to the actions and statements of individual political leaders.
The article attempts to analyze the awareness of modern working women of their gender as well as their experience of gender salience in the context of work. One of the mechanisms for maintaining gender inequality in the organization was studied, that was gendered interaction of employees. The protocols of a semi-structured interview with 51 working women of different ages and professional orientations were analyzed. Women perceive gender as a significant factor in their career, which can provide situational advantages, but strategically is perceived as a career barrier. Women are aware of gender when confronted with gender inequality in organization, during transition to motherhood or with a demonstration of sexual interest towards them, as well as with direct reminders of their gender that most often occur in the irrelevant context (at the workplace - 56.86%). Indications of gender, even in the form of jokes, are accompanied by negative emotions (perplexity, shame, anger, disgust). Women's emotions can be the most accurate indicator of micro-aggression and gender discrimination at the organizational level.
Red blood cells of rats were exposed to the earth’s magnetic field and an attenuated magnetic field in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide to induce oxidative stress. Spectral analysis within the wavelength range of 500–700 nm was used to estimate the concentration of three forms of hemoglobin: oxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, and hemichrome, released during erythrocyte hemolysis. The concentration of reactive oxygen species was determined in samples by spin trapping using electron paramagnetic resonance. It was found that after 4 h of incubation at high tert-butyl hydroperoxide concentrations (>700 μM), red blood cells that were exposed to an attenuated magnetic field released considerably more (p < 0.05) hemoglobin, mostly methemoglobin. After 24 h of incubation at low tert-butyl hydroperoxide concentrations (≤350 μM), erythrocytes that were exposed to the earth’s magnetic field released relatively more (p < 0.001) hemoglobin, with methemoglobin as a major form of total hemoglobin. Red blood cells exposed to the attenuated magnetic field generated more oxygen radicals than cells exposed to the earth’s magnetic field. Under certain oxidative stress conditions, the attenuated magnetic field can impair the functional state of red blood cells and provoke cell death. However, low concentrations of reactive oxygen species can neutralize attenuated magnetic field effects.
This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Digital Transformation and Global Society, DTGS 2019, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in June 2019.
The 56 revised full papers and 9 short papers presented in the volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 194 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on e-polity: governance; e-polity: politics online; e-city: smart cities and urban planning; e-economy: online consumers and solutions; e-society: computational social science; e-society: humanities and education; international workshop on internet psychology; international workshop on computational linguistics.